Graphite is carbon? Carbon graphite properties, use, structure, and diamond

By:Win Sep 23, 2021
Graphite is an allotrope of carbon, a product of carbon atoms in a particular configuration.

Where is graphite found?

Graphite is mainly extracted from graphite ore, the formation of graphite ore is due to the action of organic matter in the geological layer and formed. Graphite is a very useful battery material. The carbon rods in conventional batteries are also made of graphite.

Carbon graphite properties

• High temperature resistance:the melting point of graphite is 3850±50℃, and the boiling point is 4250℃. Even after ultra-high temperature arc burning, the weight loss is very small, and the thermal expansion coefficient is very small. The strength of graphite increases with the increase of temperature. At 2000℃, the strength of graphite increases twice.
• Thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity: the electrons of carbon atoms as electron clouds exist between the network plane, so that graphite has good thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Graphite has a very high thermal conductivity at room temperature, but when the temperature increases, the thermal conductivity decreases, and at very high temperatures, graphite even becomes a hot insulator.
•  Seismic: graphite expansion coefficient is small. Excellent thermal shock resistance.
•  Lubrication: graphite is a crystalline form of carbon, atoms are arranged in layers, the distance between layers is 0.34nm, the force between layers is very small, so it is easy to relative sliding between layers.
• Hemical stability and erosion resistance: graphite is not subject to any strong acid, alkali and organic solvent erosion at room temperature, but graphite is easy to oxidize in the air, used for carbon combined with refractory should take oxidation prevention measures.

Carbon graphite formula

Chemical formula of graphite: C, molecular weight: 12.01.

Graphite uses

• Natural graphite after removing impurities including quartz, pyrite, carbonate and so on, can be used for lubricants, antiwear agents and high purity graphite atomic reactor neutron decelerating agent; Used in manufacturing graphite crucible, graphite battery, graphite fiber, cooler, arc furnace, arc lamp and pencil, etc.
• Artificial graphite is mainly used in arc furnace steelmaking graphite electrode, in addition, artificial graphite is widely used in the industrial field: motor brush, precision casting abrasives, edM abrasives and wear-resistant accessories, electrolytic cell conductive or corrosion resistant equipment, high purity graphite nuclear materials and missile rocket parts and other military supplies.

Graphite structure

Graphite is a layer structure. If you look at it in a single layer, the C-C bond forms a regular hexagonal extended shape, while if you look at it as a whole, it is a layer by layer structure. So the monolayer is extremely hard, and the interlayer is extremely soft. Each layer consists of innumerable small hexagonal cells. But there are no strong bonds between the adjacent layers, so graphite can be used as a lubricant.
Graphical structure diagram
Graphical structure diagram

Graphite melting point

The melting point of graphite is 3850±50°C

Graphite and diamond

Each carbon atom of the diamond is tightly bound to the four surrounding carbon atoms through strong interactions. The distance between the two carbon atoms is about 0.155nm, resulting in a dense three-dimensional structure. It is this dense structure that makes diamond the hardest substance naturally found.
diamond structure diagram
Diamond has a denser structure than graphite. The density of diamond is about 1.5 times that of graphite (the density of diamond is about 3.5-3.53g/cm³ and that of graphite is about 2.09 -- 2.23g/cm³).
  • What is flake graphite used for? natural

    What is flake graphite used for? natural

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